Stroke Volume & Cardiac Output

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Data Acquisition

Stroke volume, cardiac output

Reference Values

Normal Range
Stroke Volume (SV)60 – 100 mL/beat
Stroke Volume Index33 – 47 mL/m2
Stroke Volume Variation†10 – 15%
Cardiac Output (CO)4.0 – 8.0 L/min
Cardiac Index (CI)2.5 – 4.0 L/min/m2
† Stroke Volume Variation = SVmax – SVmin/SVmean x 100

Formulas

\[SV = \pi \times (\frac{LVOT}{2})^2 \times LVOT  \hspace{0.2cm} VTI\] 
\[CO = \frac{SV \times HR}{1000}\]

Definitions

LVOTLeft ventricular outflow tract
VTIVelocity-time integral
HRHeart rate
SVStroke volume
COCardiac output
CICardiac index
BSABody surface area using the Mosteller formula

References

1.Huntsman LL, et al. Noninvasive Doppler determination of cardiac output in man-clinical validation. Circulation 1983; 106:1057-1065. Abstract
2.Normal Hemodynamic Parameters – Adult (PDF). Edwards Lifesciences LLC. 2009. Link

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Developer & Illustrator: Sirikarn Napan, MD, FACC