Forrester Heart Failure Class

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Clinical Use

Predict in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction and heart failure using invasive hemodynamic assessment

More Info

The Forrester classification was based on the clinical and hemodynamic evaluation of 200 patients. It assigns patients to four categories:

Forrester Class PCWP (mmHg) Cardiac Index (L/min/m2) In-hospital Mortality
I < 18 ≥ 2.2 2%
II ≥ 18 ≥ 2.2 10%
III < 18 < 2.2 12%
IV ≥ 18 < 2.2 54%

Related Tools


1. Forrester, J, Diamond, G, Chatterjie, K et al. Medical therapy of acute myocardial infarction by application of hemodynamic subsets (first of two parts). N Engl J Med. 1976; 295: 1356–1362 Abstract


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Developer: Sirikarn Napan, MD, FACC