Killip Classification

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Clinical Use

Predict 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction based on the development of heart failure

More Info

Killip classification derived from a case series of 250 patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction admitted to coronary care units.

Killip class ranks patients into 4 groups as follows:

Killip Class Clinical Assessment 30-Day Mortality
I No signs of heart failure 2-3%
II Rales or crackles in the lungs, S3 or elevated jugular venous pressure 5-12%
III Frank pulmonary edema 10-20%
IV Cardiogenic shock 10-20%

Related Tools


1. Killip T, Kimball JT (Oct 1967). “Treatment of myocardial infarction in a coronary care unit. A two year experience with 250 patients”. Am J Cardiol. 20 (4): 457–64. Abstract
2. Khot UN, Jia G, Moliterno DJ, et al. Prognostic importance of physical examination for heart failure in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: the enduring value of Killip classification. JAMA. 2003;290(16):2174-81. Full Text


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Developer: Sirikarn Napan, MD, FACC