Stroke Volume & Cardiac Output

– share this tool –

Data Acquisition

Stroke volume, cardiac output

Reference Values

Normal Range
Stroke Volume (SV) 60 – 100 mL/beat
Stroke Volume Index 33 – 47 mL/m2
Stroke Volume Variation† 10 – 15%
Cardiac Output (CO) 4.0 – 8.0 L/min
Cardiac Index (CI) 2.5 – 4.0 L/min/m2
† Stroke Volume Variation = SVmax – SVmin/SVmean x 100


\[SV = \pi \times (\frac{LVOT}{2})^2 \times LVOT  \hspace{0.2cm} VTI\] 
\[CO = \frac{SV \times HR}{1000}\]


LVOT Left ventricular outflow tract
VTI Velocity-time integral
HR Heart rate
SV Stroke volume
CO Cardiac output
CI Cardiac index
BSA Body surface area using the Mosteller formula


1. Huntsman LL, et al. Noninvasive Doppler determination of cardiac output in man-clinical validation. Circulation 1983; 106:1057-1065. Abstract
2. Normal Hemodynamic Parameters – Adult (PDF). Edwards Lifesciences LLC. 2009. Link


We are doing our best to prepare the content of this website. However, Cardiology Connections, Corp cannot warranty the expressions and suggestions of the contents, as well as its accuracy. In addition, to the extent permitted by the law, Cardiology Connections, Corp shall not be responsible for any losses and/or damages due to the usage of the information on our website. Furthermore, the links contained on our website may lead to external sites, which are provided for convenience only. Any information or statements that appeared in these sites are not sponsored, endorsed, or otherwise approved by Cardiology Connections, Corp. For these external sites, Cardiology Connections, Corp cannot be held liable for the availability of, or the content located on or through it. Plus, any losses or damages occurred from using these contents or the internet generally.

Developer & Illustrator: Sirikarn Napan, MD, FACC